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Voice disorders occur when voice quality, pitch, and loudness differ or are inappropriate for an individual’s age, gender, cultural background, or geographic location. A voice disorder is present when an individual expresses concern about having an abnormal voice that does not meet daily needs—even if others do not perceive it as different or deviant.

(Aronson & Bless, 2009; Boone et al., 2010; Lee et al., 2004)

(American Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA], 1993; Colton & Casper, 2011; Stemple et al., 2010; Verdolini & Ramig, 2001)

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